Fiber-optic internet (often just known as “fiber”) can be staggeringly faster than the DSL, cable or satellite internet connections that many Americans rely on. it’s also pretty uncommon, relatively speaking. According to a January study from the Fiber Broadband Association, 43 percent of U.S. households can access fiber internet service — but that may soon start to change.
Between a presidential push to expand high-speed internet access and a handful of recent broadband funding announcements from different agencies, fiber service could become much more readily available. That’s especially valuable for corners of the country where reliable internet access is hard to find. But who’s going to bury all these new cables in the ground? And what does any of this mean for you? Here’s what you should know about fiber internet and how the government’s internet-for-all push could affect you For years, American households have largely relied on copper telephone wires or coaxial connections from cable companies to get online. Problem is, there are limits to how quickly data can move through those metallic mediums, not to mention limits on how far signals can go through them before they begin to degrade.
Fiber is different. Instead of relying on metal wires, fiber-optic cables are made of hundreds of hairlike glass strands where data is being moved in the form of light pulses at super fast speeds. That means the volume of data that can move through a fiber optic cable over time, also known as bandwidth, can be much larger than what you may be getting from your current internet connection. That’s why many fiber home internet providers can offer upload and download speeds of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) or more, while the average fixed home internet connection in the United States sits at around 225 megabits per second — or about 23 percent as fast as a gigabit fiber connection. “We don’t really know the upper bounds of a fiber wire yet,” said Chao Jun Liu, a legislative associate at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. “We’re still discovering that.” There’s another benefit here, too: symmetry. It’s very common for a household to be able to download things faster than it can upload them, and for most people, that’s not really an issue. But as we begin pushing more data out into the world, be it through Twitch streams, YouTube uploads or something else, upload speeds become more of a concern. And as we collectively embrace more new gadgets, the need for bandwidth to keep them all connected grows, too.
“Copper is pretty much obsolete. It’s done,” Liu said. “Cable is hitting an upper limit that we will likely meet within the next decade. Fiber could probably meet our needs for the next 30 years, if not 50.” The sprawling infrastructure bill President Biden signed last year allocated $65 billion to expanding high-speed internet access to all Americans, and the bulk of that money will flow to states and U.S. territories through the Broadband Equity, Access, and Deployment Program or BEAD, for short. BEAD is being handled by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and it made clear in a document called a notice of funding opportunity what kind of internet connection it prefers. “With respect to the deployment of last-mile broadband infrastructure, the Program prioritizes projects designed to provide fiber connectivity directly to the end user,” the notice reads. To help make that happen, each participating state is eligible for a minimum of $100 million in funding, while territories like Guam and American Samoa are entitled to $25 million.
BEAD isn’t the only internet access expansion program that has a fondness for fiber — even if the word itself isn’t always prominent. Earlier this summer, the Treasury Department’s Coronavirus Capital Projects Fund began awarding hundreds of millions of dollars to states that developed plans to deliver “service that reliably meets or exceeds symmetrical download and upload speeds of 100 Mbps” when at all feasible. “Whenever you run into 100/100, that’s just code for fiber,” says Jonathan Schwantes, senior policy counsel for Consumer Reports.
Source: This news is originally published by washingtonpost